Tuesday, February 28, 2012

CHARGE Syndrome

What is CHARGE Syndrome you may ask as we did, blind-sided by the diagnosis the morning after Trey's birth.  Here is some information about the Syndrome from www.chargesyndrome.org. 

"CHARGE syndrome is a recognizable (genetic) pattern of birth defects which occurs in about one in every 9-10,000 births worldwide. It is an extremely complex syndrome, involving extensive medical and physical difficulties that differ from child to child. The vast majority of the time, there is no history of CHARGE syndrome or any other similar conditions in the family. Babies with CHARGE syndrome are often born with life-threatening birth defects, including complex heart defects and breathing problems. They spend many months in the hospital and undergo many surgeries and other treatments. Swallowing and breathing problems make life difficult even when they come home. Most have hearing loss, vision loss, and balance problems which delay their development and communication. All are likely to require medical and educational intervention for many years. Despite these seemingly insurmountable obstacles, children with CHARGE syndrome often far surpass their medical, physical, educational, and social expectations.
Continued research is needed to help us understand the medical and developmental challenges facing individuals with CHARGE. Better understanding will lead the way to interventions, therapies and educational strategies which can help people with CHARGE syndrome overcome many of the obstacles in their lives.
One of the hidden features of CHARGE syndrome is the determination and strong character these children display.

History of the name "CHARGE"

The name "CHARGE" was a clever way (in 1981) to refer to a newly recognized cluster of features seen in a number of children. Over the years, it has become clear that CHARGE is indeed a syndrome and at least one gene causing CHARGE syndrome has been discovered (see below). The letters in CHARGE stand for: Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, Retardation of growth and/or development, Genital and/or urinary abnormalities, and Ear abnormalities and deafness. Those features are no longer used in making a diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome, but we're not changing the name.

Clinical Diagnostic Criteria (2005)

Even though a gene for CHARGE syndrome has been discovered, the gene test is very expensive and isn't perfect -only about 2/3 of people with CHARGE have a positive gene test. Therefore, the diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome is still clinical - based on the medical features seen in the child. An evaluation for possible CHARGE syndrome should be made by a medical geneticist who is familiar with CHARGE. The clinical diagnosis is made using a combination of Major and Minor features. Major features are characteristics that are quite common in CHARGE syndrome but relatively rare in other conditions, and are, for the most part, diagnosable in the newborn period. Minor features are characteristics which are also common in CHARGE, but not quite as helpful in distinguishing CHARGE from other syndromes. They either are common in other conditions (e.g. heart defects), harder to diagnose consistently (e.g. typical CHARGE face), or may not be diagnosed until later (e.g. growth deficiency). Finally, there are "Other" features - these may be very important in terms of health and management, but are not very helpful in determining if a child has CHARGE syndrome or something else."

Coloboma of the eye Coloboma (sort of like a cleft) of the iris, retina, choroid, macula or disc (not the eyelid); microphthalmos (small eye) or anophthalmos (missing eye): CAUSES VISION LOSS
Choanal atresia or stenosis The choanae are the passages that go from the back of the nose to the throat. They can be narrow (stenosis) or blocked (atresia). It can be unilateral (one-sided) or bilateral (both sides), bony or membranous.
Unilateral atresia or stenosis can be difficult to diagnose
Cranial nerve abnormality I - Missing or decreased sense of smell 90-100%
IX/X - Swallowing difficulties, aspiration  - Pictures 70%-90%
VII - Facial palsy (one side or both)  -  Pictures 40%
CHARGE outer ear Short, wide ear with little or no lobe, "snipped off" helix (outer fold), prominent antihelix (inner fold) which is discontinuous with tragus, triangular concha, decreased cartilage (floppy), often stick out, usually asymmetric -  Pictures >50%
CHARGE     middle ear Malformed bones of the middle ear (ossicles): CAUSES CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS Common
CHARGE inner ear Malformed cochlea (Mondini defect); small or absent semicircular canals: CAUSE HEARING LOSS AND BALANCE PROBLEMS  -  Pictures

1 comment:

  1. Hi my name is Kayla I am in middle school and I find this a cool thing because my 8 year old little bro has charge syndrome and I try to make charge syndrome aware to everyone I meet! ;) and I have always loved charge syndrome since I was 4 or 5 and now I`m 13 going on14.